Annotated Websites


A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls
A summary of John Rawls’ book, done in outline format with several bullet-pointed paragraphs of information to try to simplify the text. Rawls’ “Veil of Ignorance” is given its own paragraph of summary and explanation at the bottom of the page.

American Journalism Review (AJR Newslink)
This is a joint venture between Journalism and NewsLink Associates, an online research and consulting firm. It includes features from the printed edition of AJR magazine, the worldwide online publication lists of NewsLink, and original content created especially for online readers.

Applied Ethics Resource on the WWW
University of British Columbia Center for Applied Ethics created this great web page with links to all aspects of applied ethics including business, health, science, media, environment, animal welfare, and more.

Aristotle Ethics
This is from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Aristotle's Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Ethics)
Web essay published on Stanford University’s website discussing Aristotle and his various ethical systems, as well as how they impacted the world after him.

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (AEJMC)
This is an international association of nearly 3,300 journalism/mass communication faculty, students, administrators, and professionals. International in scope, its members come from more than 30 countries, with the majority working in the U.S. and Canada. Resources include research and publications by the AEJMC Media Ethics Interest Group.

Association for Practical and Professional Ethics
Maintained by Indiana University. It is committed to encouraging high quality interdisciplinary scholarship and teaching in practical and professional ethics by educators and practitioners who appreciate the theoretical and practical impacts of their subjects.

Books on Ethics
This is a list of books on ethics.

Civil Practices Network
This is the Civic Journalism section of CPN. Users may access essays that provide an overview of the civil and public journalism movement. CPN cases offer a city-by-city guide to public journalism projects across the U.S, as reported by Project Public Life and the Press, the Pew Center for Civic Journalism, the Poynter Institute, Democracy Place USA, and other CPN partners. It includes access to the CPN Journalism Bulletin Board.

Columbia Journalism Review
CJR features current and archived issues of the journal. Archive includes full text of CJR issues back to July/August 1991. Users may access the CJR database to search a variety of media publications as well as several resource guides and hyperlinks.

Ethics Connection
The website for the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University.

Ethics on the World Wide Web
California State University, Fullerton School of Communications maintains links to all aspects of ethics, including a link to associations.

Ethics Matters
A monthly column in News Photographer magazine by Deni Elliott and Paul Martin Lester.

This is a project out of Finland that aims to provide a comprehensive databank offering basic information on media ethics for journalism students and teachers as well as scholars and practitioners. Included is a collection of codes of journalism ethics from most of the European countries, translated into English. The source and core of the collection resulted from numerous research projects of the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Tampere, and it has been extended and updated with information from various relevant sources.

Ethics Resource Center
"ERC is a nonprofit, nonpartisan educational organization whose vision is a world where individuals and organizations act with integrity."

Ethics Updates
Maintained by University of San Diego. It offers an informative look at classic works in moral philosophy including ethical theory, applied ethics, moral theory, ethical relativism, meta-ethical concerns, and virtue ethics. For the journalist, there is a reference section on meta-ethics and moral pluralism. An additional feature is A Glossary of Terms in Ethics.

Freedom Forum Online
This is a nonpartisan, international foundation dedicated to free press, free speech and free spirit for all people. The foundation focuses on four main priorities: the Newseum, First Amendment issues, newsroom diversity and world press freedom. An excellent resource for information pertaining to responsible journalism.

This is the International Journalist's Network. Organized and administered by the International Center For Journalists (ICFJ), an organization established in 1984 to improve the quality of journalism in nations where there is little or no tradition of independent journalism. It has the latest media assistance news from Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and the Newly Independent States as well as Latin America and Africa. It provides geographical and topical forums for journalists; worldwide fellowships, grants, and national codes of ethics.

Indiana University Index to Journalism Ethics Cases
Features Journalism Ethics Cases Online, a set of cases that has been created for teachers, researchers, professional journalists and consumers of news to help them explore ethical issues in journalism. Cases raise various issues faced by journalists, such as privacy, conflict of interest, reporter-source relationships, and the role of journalists in their communities.

Institute for Business and Professional Ethics
This is the site of the IBPE, which was established in 1985 by a joint effort of the Colleges of Liberal Arts & Sciences and Commerce at DePaul University. The mission of the IBPE is to encourage ethical deliberation in decision-makers by stirring the moral conscience and imagination.

Institute for Global Ethics
Ethics site on a broad range of issues. Lots of information.

International Business Ethics Institute
A non-profit organization aimed at encouraging ethical practices in the business world. Offers ethics resources for the general public and businesses.

Journal of Mass Media Ethics
A publication website devoted to explorations of ethics problems and issues in various fields of mass communication, with emphasis on materials dealing with principles and reasoning in ethics. Users can access article abstracts and other archival material.

Kant's Categorical Imperative
Page defining and providing examples for Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative, including many quotes from Kant’s writings and analysis of his ideas, as well as links to further readings about him and other similar ethical systems.

Media Action Grassroots Network
Website dedicated to organizing media professionals in discussion of means of promoting justice and ethics while addressing issues of poverty, racism, and sexism.

Media Ethics & Accountability
A collection of sites dealing with censorship and other relevant media ethics categories and controversies.

Media Ethics Division: AEJMC
The Media Ethics Division of AEJMC includes more than 300 scholars researching and teaching in the fields of mass communication ethics.

Media Ethics Magazine
An extensive collection of opinions and research articles on media ethics, ethics book reviews, and news in media ethics.

Media Ethics Online
A comprehensive virtual catalog of media organizations, ethics codes online, directories, and scholarship. Catalog subset of Web Ethics highlights "cyberethics" or ethical concerns relating to journalism in the digital age.

Media Watch
The online site for "Media Watch" from the PBS NewsHour television program.

National Press Photographers Association Online
An organization dedicated to the advancement of photojournalism, its creation, editing and distribution in all news media. Users may access a variety of resources linked to the homepage.

Poynter Institute for Media Studies Online
An institute dedicated to helping journalists fulfill their responsibility to empower citizens by informing them. Includes a comprehensive resource center for journalists, including, but not limited to, online editor services, tip sheets, Poynter Institute research, and a comprehensive hyperextension of professional resources catalogued by job classification.

Poynter Online's Ethics Journal
Kelly McBride's journalism ethics column.

Poynter Online's Ethics Tipsheets
Practical journalism tips you can use.

Poynter Online's Guide to Accuracy
As more and more newsrooms examine their policies in the wake of the recent industry shakeups, Poynter has compiled a collection of articles on related issues to consider.

Poynter Online's Media Credibility Bibliography
Bibliography that includes links and resources on media credibility.

Poynter Online's Talk about Ethics
Bob Steele's journalism ethics column.

Presswise-international Code of Ethics
The PressWise Trust is an independent media ethics charity, set up in 1993 by 'victims of media abuse', supported by concerned journalists, media lawyers and politicians in the UK.

Resource Center
ERC is a nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization, dedicated to independent research that advances high ethical standards and practices in public and private institutions.

Silha Center for the Study of Media Ethics and Law
The Center was established in 1984 within the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Minnesota.

Society of Professional Journalists. Ethics in Journalism
The website of the Society of Professional Journalists, the nation's largest and most broad-based journalism organization, dedicated to encouraging the free practice of journalism and stimulating high standards of ethical behavior. Website provides the SPJ Code, Ethics News, and ethics resources.

The Honolulu Community Media Council
A non-profit, non-governmental group that seeks to ethically improve public access to “to improve public access to information, strengthen public support for First Amendment rights and freedoms, broaden public understanding of the role of the media, and promote accurate and fair journalism in Hawaii.”

The Institute for Applied & Professional Ethics
Ohio University’s website for applied and professional ethics. Provides resources for many areas including media, journalism, blogging, and workplace ethics.

The Main Concepts of Confucianism
Website created by Lander University as part of a focus on philosophy; includes discussion of the basic tenants of Confucianism as well as what they mean and how followers of Confucian beliefs should act in response.

The Online Journal of Ethics
An online journal of cutting-edge research in the field of business and professional ethics. Users can access current full-text and archived issues.

Web Resources for Studying Journalism Ethics
Comprehensive list of media ethics sites.

What is Ethics?
A discussion on ethics from Santa Clara University.


Accuracy in Media
An organization "for fairness, balance and accuracy in news reporting"; this group is a non-profit, grassroots citizens watchdog of the news media that critiques inaccurate or biased news stories and attempts to establish accuracy on important issues that have received slanted coverage.

Alternative news source. Looks at the news from a new and fresh perspective.

American Journalism Review Online
Includes news and columns from American Journalism Review magazine.

Associated Press
A non-profit news organization dedicated to reporting news from all over the globe.

Can We Tape?
This site features a state-by-state guide to laws governing recording conversations over the telephone, using hidden cameras, and the publication of illegal tapes.

Center for Democracy & Technology
This site covers issues of child online protection, spamming, and free speech.

Center for International Media Ethics
A non-profit agency that provides training, discussion and expertise in the ethics for journalists.

Columbia Journalism Review Online
Founded in 1961 by Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism, The Columbia Journalism Review holds itself out as a watchdog of the press in all its forms. It examines day-to-day press performance as well as larger historical, economic, political and social forces affecting the collection and reporting of news. The site includes a number of helpful areas with additional links, for example, "Journalism Tools", Media Finder, News about News, and Recommended Resources.

Comments on the Unabomber's Manifesto
Comments and analysis of the infamous manifesto, including a biography of the Unabomber and links to the full text of the manifesto and a psychiatric report conducted on him before his trial.

Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America
The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America is a media-monitoring, research and membership organization devoted to promoting accurate and balanced coverage of Israel and the Middle East.

American Press Institute presents The Journalist's Toolbox and includes articles and links to ethics topics.

Ethics Guide for Public Radio Journalism
This guide provides an overview of some of the most important ethical issues that face public radio, as identified by public radio journalists. It offers principles and standards for ethical practice, in keeping with public radio's commitment to the highest standards of journalism.

Ethics in Journalism
The ethics section of the Society of Professional Journalists website.

Ethics in Public Broadcasting
Public broadcasters are probably far from the worst violators of ethical codes in media, but they face stressful temptations. Questions arose in both gray and black-and-white situations reported in these Current articles.

FAIR: Fairness and Accuracy in News Reporting
This is a national media watch group that offers well-documented criticism of media bias and censorship and advocates for greater diversity in the press.

First Amendment Center
Comprehensive site on issues of freedom of speech.

First Amendment Handbook
The Reporters Committee For Freedom of the Press posted this handbook on their website.

Freedom Forum
The Freedom Forum is a nonpartisan foundation dedicated to free press, free speech and free spirit for all people. The foundation focuses on three priorities: the Newseum, First Amendment freedoms and newsroom diversity.

Free Speech Updates
Website to accompany Tedford and Herbeck's Text, Freedom of Speech in the United States . It contains an updated list of court cases relevant to free speech issues.

Global Journalism Ethics
The topic page of the Freedom Forum. The World Press Institute (WPI) and the media ethics division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) have teamed up to provide this forum for discussion of vital ethical issues affecting journalists all over the world.

Journalism Ethics Cases Online
These ethics cases come from the Indiana University School of Journalism.

JProf Ethics
A web site devoted to providing educators with journalism resources. It contains a section on ethics as well as skills, issues, and industry information.

LA Times Ethics Guidelines
Statement from the LA Times outlining the newspaper’s ethical guidelines that govern choices of content, sources, editing, and several other ethical dilemmas in news reporting.

Minnesota News Council
The News Council provides a mechanism for the public to hold news outlets accountable.

Newspaper Association for America
A non-profit organization that is dedicated to helping newspapers in policy and growth. It features trends and resources on the newspaper industry.

ONO: Organization of News Ombudsmen
Organization of media watchdogs. Site has a lot of information on different controversies in the media and the ethical solutions.

Online Journalism Review
This site includes articles on making the Web an equal partner– New York Times and its online presence and online news from the Democratic National Convention.

Pew Center for Civic Journalism
The Pew Center is an incubator for civic journalism experiments that enable news organizations to create and refine better ways of reporting the news to re-engage people in public life.

Poynter Online's Links to the News: Reporting on Religion
Poynter Online's Links to the News column compiles valuable Web resources on current and previous news topics.

Radio Television Digital News Association
Ethical guidelines for electronic journalists.

Standards for Education Reporters
National Education Writers Association voluntary guidelines.

Washington News Council
"An independent, nonprofit, statewide organization whose members share a common belief that fair, accurate and balanced news media are vital to our democracy."


A non-profit organization that promotes a healthy body image for women. This website also provides advertisements that are socially responsible, and others that may be offensive. This resource aims to shed light on advertising in the media.

Advertising Educational Foundation
Essay written by an advertising expert that is published by an academic journal.

American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA)
The national trade association of advertising.

Books on Advertising Ethics
This is a list of books that focus on Advertising ethics.

Books on Ethics
This is a list of Books on Ethics in Advertising.

Catholic Church’s View
This is an article on ethics in advertising by the Ponticial Council of Social Communication.

Don't Blindly Trust the Gatekeeper
A column hosted on CBS News online, but written by a student at Vanderbilt University and posted via UWire warns against blindly trusting the media gatekeepers in today’s society.

Ethics in Advertising
This is a journal article about ethics in Advertising.

Ethics in Advertising: A Speech
Text version of a talk written up for use by teachers of advertising methods, hosted by the Advertising Educational Foundation; the speech covers how advertisers are trained to think about ethics in their profession.

How is Advertizing Influenced By Ethics?
CNN World Business interviews a representative from advertising company JWT, discussing the ethical issues companies contend with when advertising.

This is an article published by The Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute (RJI) which exists to develop and test ways to improve journalism through new technology and improved processes.

Responsible Advertising and Children
Website of Responsible Advertising and Children, a collection of both advertising companies and watch groups dedicated to making advertising child-friendly.

The Downside of User Generated Content
Article from Bloomberg Businessweek covering the gap between content created by people rather than businesses and what those businesses want to have portrayed in that content, trying to find the line between control over content and freedom to allow content to be created.

Public Relations

A Simpler Approach
This is an article published by the Monash Univeristy on Ethics in Public Relations.

Books on PR ethics
This is a list of books on PR ethics.

This article on ethics in public relations is published by the Institute for Public Relations.

PR Codes of Ethics
Links to several PR codes of ethics.

PR Watch
A project of the Center of Media and Democracy, a non-profit media and consumer watchdog group. Investigates and reports on accuracy and spin in organizational PR campaigns while advocating for transparency in PR and media literacy for consumers.

Public Relations Student Society of America

The web site of the PRSSA.

Rescuing Reputations at Risk
Facebook hires a PR company to anonymously “smear” Google – and is found out. This online chat about PR ethics discusses the breach of ethics in this situation, and raises similar ethical issues faced by journalists and PR professionals.

Responsible Advocacy
An e-book offered by Sage on ethics in public relations.

Social Responsibility in Marketing
Part of a site put together by the University of Southern California, this page gives an overview of what the responsibilities of a marketing firm has to the society it is a part of, as well as methods they use to be both as marketable as possible, yet also seen as responsible.

The Public Relations Society of America
The Public Relations Society of America, headquartered in New York City, is the world's largest professional organization for public relations practitioners. The Society's nearly 20,000 members organized into 116 Chapters represent business and industry, counseling firms, government, associations, hospitals, schools, professional services firms and nonprofit organizations. This site contains links to Codes of Ethics governing Public Relations and a variety of other resources and publications related to the practice of public relations.


An Analysis of South Park: Uncensored
NPR’s look at South Park, taking into account the recent censoring of the 200th episode, and covering both the censorship itself and the aftermath and attitude of the network and creators in the time following.

Animals for Entertainment
The BBC reports on an ethics guides for treatment of animals in entertainment.

Children's Internet Protection Act

History and background of the controversial act.

Common Sense Media
An advocacy organization dedicated to helping parents navigate the media world by providing detailed ratings on movies, web sites, video games, books, and music.

Entertainment Law Ethics
This is an article written by the University of Akron Law school about ethics in entertainment law.

Hollywood Censored: The Production Code

A history of the controversial production code.

Motion Picture Association of America
An advocacy association for films. This website features resources on film ratings, content protection, policy, research, and news in the industry. Also has a web page for parents to look up film ratings and protect their children from inappropriate content.

Music Censorship – Laws
A page from a KSU hosted site concerning censorship across all media, this page covers the fact that, while there are no laws requiring censorship of music, there are certain restrictions that need to be followed.

Rage Against the Machine: Media and Youth, Cultures of Violence
A broad look at the culture of violence created by all kinds of media.

Reality TV
This is a look at ethics in reality TV.


The listserv for the National Communication Association Division of Communication Ethics.


A Yahoo! group designed for graduate students specializing in public relations. This mailing list also functions as a forum to share ideas.

IJN Journalism Ethics Forum
The International Journalism Network's discussion group on important media issues and journalism training developments worldwide.

Journalism Ethics Listservs
List of several various journalism listservs includes The Society of Professional Journalists’ SPJ-ETHICS and JOURNETHICS.

This is an ethics in journalism forum Southern Africa. You may subscribe by sending a message to and in the body of the subscription request message, type subscribe JOURNETHICS.

National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) Listserv
Sponsored by the National Press Photographers Association. This discussion group focuses generally on the profession of photojournalism, both print and electronic, and specifically on the members of the NPPA. Users may subscribe by sending a message to and in the body of the subscription request message, type subscribe NPPA-L.

Online Press Club–Journalism Forum
This is the international press club on CompuServe. The site includes a mail list forum and discussion group devoted to global issues in journalism. Membership is free and exclusive to CompuServe users.

PR Bytes
A Yahoo! group for public relations practitioners to discuss current issues in the industry.

A Yahoo! group for public relations professionals and students studying the profession. This forum is designed for individuals who want to discuss important topics in the field and also ask questions.


ACA Code
The American Counseling Association Code of Ethics.

American Society of Newspaper Editors
This site features a comprehensive list of codes of ethics of various organizations, as collected by ASNE. these include codes of ethical conduct from national associations, news organizations, and regional presses.

ASNE Ethics Codes Collection
Collection of ethics codes from different organizations.

Can You Improve Your Code of Ethics?
ASNE asked two leading thinkers to analyze 33 current codes of ethics assembled by the Ethics and Values Committee. Their goal was to highlight the most common — and useful — ingredients of these documents to help editors evaluate their own codes, if they have one, or help editors create one, if they choose.

Code of Ethics
The University of Phoenix publishes a Code of Ethics in advertising.

Code of Ethics
PRSA Code of ethics for the practitioner.

Codes of Ethics Online
An introduction covers the debate about the function and value of codes of ethics. Also included is a helpful Index of Codes. The codes are organized by professional category and are drawn from the continually growing collection held by CSEP's Library and from the web.

Entertainment Ethics
Code of ethics for the entertainment industry.

Evolution of the RTNDA Code of Ethics
As radio network news came into its own during World War II, so did local news just after the war. Stations that had made do with news editors who worked under program directors were now getting news departments headed by news directors.

Excerpts from Ethics Codes on Plagiarism
A collection of samples related to plagiarism codes.

IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators
The code of ethics from the International Association of Business Communicators.

NPR’s Code of Ethics
An example of a news organization’s code of ethics for responsible journalism.

Online Journalism Review
The USC Annenberg School for Communication Journalism outlines ethical principles for online journalism.
A website devoted to media ethics and accountability systems. Includes information about media codes and press councils from around the world.

PRSA Code of Professional Standards
The Public Relations Society of America’s code of professional standards in the industry.

Public Relations Codes of Ethics
A website that explains the difference between public relations and journalism while providing codes of ethics for the profession.

RTNDA Code of Ethics
The ethics code for the Radio-Television News Directors Association.