Study of the Female Ideal
Former fashion model turned university researcher examines the fashion model as female ideal.

Picture Imperfect
A blog post from The Art Institutes website addresses the ethical question of digital media image manipulation.

Is Photo Retouching Ethical?
Another blog post from the Harrington College of Design sets up the ethical question of photo retouching.

Seventeen’s Body Peace Treaty
New York Times Magazine article reflecting on the move by Seventeen in 2012. Includes images of the treaty.

France bans excessively skinny models
Time article from April 2015 about France’s decision to adopt Body Mass Index standards for models.


The Dove Evolution video
Referred to in Case 27 in the historical timeline, this revealed how perceptions of beauty can be distorted (video).

The Body Evolution video
Also referred to in Case 27; similar to Dove’s video, but this time the adjustment is made with the entire female body (video).

Models Too Thin
Model Claudia Schiffer told People in 2006 that models are too thin to be attractive.

Does media pressure us to be thin?
Diet website blog post cites research that the pressure to be thin is still strong in our society.

Time for weight guidelines for the U.S. fashion industry?
This December 2015 NPR health article asks if American fashion shows should follow the lead of France and other countries.

Beyonce’s golf thighs criticized
Post from the website Jezebel referenced in Case 27 that questions whether the superstar’s legs were altered in photos she posted to Instagram.


In defense of Photoshop
In 2010, New York Times Magazine writer Amanda Fortini shared that she is weary of the media crusade against altered photos and that the audience should take more responsibility for their role in the issue.

Thin is in, says Vogue writer
The Baltimore Sun reflects on a Vogue magazine writer’s claim that we shouldn’t be so quick to blame thin models for the problems with body image in advertising.

Victoria Beckham defends her skinny models
The singer and fashion designer reacts to criticism of the models she used during New York Fashion Week in September 2015.

Strong is the new sexy
TakePart’s Amanda Cowan reports on a new angle for models, introduced by an Australian swimwear company, which focuses on fitness rather than weight.

What five models think about the French BMI standards for models
A 2015 article from Cosmopolitan gives different perspectives to the focus on Body Mass Index.

Related Topics

More brands fight for real women
Melissa Rayworth, writing for the TakePart website, reflects on the 10-year anniversary of the Dove campaign and its impact.

Ultra-Thin Debate
CNN report on the debate between fashion designers and health advocates (video).

Models and Anorexia
Medical review from 2007 of alarming increases in anorexia among fashion models.

Society of Spectacle
Nick Clyde’s blog post about living in an image-based society, referenced in the introduction to Chapter 7.


The Carousel scene from Mad Men
Vimeo clip referred to in the introduction to Chapter 7, from the AMC show where Jon Hamm’s character, Don Draper, explains the advertising concepts of the new and the nostalgic (video).

Actress/Model Twiggy
IMDB’s brief biography on one of the models who changed thin into the new ideal.